The Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology (IMB) is a military research facility of the German Armed Forces for Medical Biological Defence. Our mission is to develop methods and measures to protect soldiers from diseases caused by biological warfare agents and other dangerous pathogens. To this end, we conduct scientific research on a broad spectrum of infectious agents and biotoxins, all of which could potentially be misused as biological warfare agents. These pathogens and toxins are rarely found in nature and can usually cause serious, sometimes fatal, diseases. They are easily transmitted from person to person and are often difficult to treat. One of the goals of our research is to be able to diagnose these pathogens ambiguously. All diagnostic methods established in this process also serve to clarify unexplained disease outbreaks with regard to the possible use of such pathogens and biotoxins.Of course, we also take into account other infectious diseases that are relevant in terms of differential diagnosis. Our diagnostic capabilities resulting from this mission offer a wide range of further applications, including the diagnosis of natural infections and outbreaks caused by the same pathogens.